Shaqiqa (Migraine) is a disease caused by imbalance of humours (Akhlaat) in the body. It is an ancient entity. Concept of “Shaqiqa” is present in modern medicine by the name of Migraine. It this type of headache only one half of head is afflicted with pain. Sometimes it involves the whole head. It is caused by vapours (Bukharaat), arising towards the head from the body or by hot humours (Akhlaat-e- Harra) or cold humours (Akhlaat-e- Baarida). In this case a relatively less quantity of causative matter intervenes.
It is characterized by the episodic throbbing pain in only one half of head, especially in sanguine (Damwi) type, due to lesser quantity of causative matter. There may be relief in pain when the throbbing artery is pressed. In shaqiqa (Migraine), headache is frequently accompanied with tinnitus (Taneen) and nausea (Ghasayaan).
Clinical features of migraine (Alamaat-e- Shaqiqa)
It is characterized by episodes of moderate to severe headache, which is often unilateral and pulsating and typically aggravated by routine physical activities. The duration of untreated migraine (Shaqiqa) attacks is rather long, from 4 hours to 3 days (median duration 18 hours). Pain is accompanied by some other symptoms, the most common symptoms being nausea (Ghasayaan), vomiting (Qai), photophobia and phonophobia. Other associated symptoms, such as osmophobia, pallor, fatigue, difficulty in concentration, blurred vision, or diarrhoea may also be present
Aetiology of migraine (Asbaab-e- Shaqiqa)
There are two main causes of migraine (Shaqiqa):
Migraine (Shaqiqa) is common in women in period of prolonged menses (Istihaza), Due to prolonged breast feeding, prolonged exercise (Kasrat-e- riyazat), fatigues (Ta’ab wa mandgi), insomnia (Baidari), starvation (Faqa kashi), hysteria (Ikhtinaq-ur- Reham), renal diseases (Amraz-e-kuliyah), Indigestion of food (Su-e- hazm), Anaemia (Faqr-ud-dam), excessive use of cupping (Kasrat-e- Hijjama) etc.
Types of Shaqiqa (Migraine): It is usually of two types
Unani philosophy of Shaqiqa (Migraine)
It is a type of headache characterised by periodic attack of pain. Pain is usually unilateral, sometimes bilateral. Area of pain is usually in the regions of temporal, ear occipital, parietal, periorbital regions. Dilation and pulsation of extra cranial vessels it can be easily identified. Application of pressure by tight bandage lowers the intensity of pain
Shaqiqa (Migraine) is not a modern entity. Its concept is present since ancient times in Unani classical texts. Many renowned physician have defined shaqiqa (Migraine) in their treatise.
Prevention/ Precaution (Tahaffuz)
Preventing measures of Shaqiqa (Migraine)
There are a number of ways, which can reduce chances of experiencing Shaqiqa (migraine). One of the best ways of preventing Shaqiqa (migraine) is recognising the things that trigger an attack. Try to avoid them.
Migraine (Shaqiqa) Triggers
Many possible triggers of migraine (Shaqiqa) have been suggested, including hormonal, emotional, physical, dietary, environmental and medicinal factors.
Principles of Treatment (Usool-e- Ilaaj)
Regimental Therapy (Ilaj bil Tadbeer)
Dietotherapy (Ilaaj bil Ghiza)
Pharmacotherapy (Ilaaj bil Dawa)
Local application of following formulation on the affected side
Pterocarpus marsupium. Roxb. (Damm-ul- Akhwain), Crocus sativus Linn. (Zafran/Gumr/ Gumrah), Acacia arabica/ nillotica Willd. (Aqaaqia/Mughilaan/Kikar/Babool/Qaraz), Dried latex of Papaver somniferum Linn. (Khashkhassh/Afyoon) are mixed in egg white , pasted over a piece of paper and applied on the affected side of head.
Application of following liniment (Tila) on the affected side
Hyoscyamus niger Linn. (Bazr-ul-Banj/ Ajwain Khorasani) Q.S, Lactuca sativa Linn. (Tukhm-e- Kahu) Q.S, Atropa belladonna Linn. (Post beekh-e- Luffah/ Yabrooj/ Bateetas) Q.S.
Irrigation (Natool) on temporal region when migraine (Shaqiqa) caused by hot humour (Khilt-e- Haar)
Irrigation (Natool) on temporal region when migraine (Shaqiqa) caused by cold humour (Khilt-e- Baarid)