Ramad/ Ashob-e- Chashm (Conjunctivitis)

Ramad/ Ashob-e- Chashm (Conjunctivitis)


It is inflammation of Tabaqa-e- Multahima (Conjuctive), which may be acute or chronic. It may be hot (haar) or Cold (barid) in nature. Conjunctival inflammation is one of the commonest ocular disorder encountered in the practice of ophthalmology. It is most frequently occurring in the developing nations. There are number of medicinal herbs and mineral origin drugs available in classical Unani medicine texts which are generally used in ocular ailments specially conjunctivitis since ancient times. These Unani drugs are easily available, rich in chemical constituents and possess biological activity.

Ramad/ Ashob-e- Chashm (Conjunctivitis) is mainly caused by exposure to sunlight, dust, smoke and predominance of humours and vapours / gases. It is common during summer season and characterized by irritation, swelling, pain and redness in the eye, epiphora, purulent discharge and heaviness in the head along with the symptoms of causative humour.

As per modern concept “Conjunctivitis” (Ramad/ Ashob-e- Chashm) is defined as conjunctival hyperaemia, associated with a discharge which may be watery, mucoid, mucopurulent or purulent i.e., inflammation of the conjunctiva. Conjunctivitis may be bacterial, viral or chlamydial and it is a common cause of unilateral or bilateral infected red eyes.

Causes (Asbaab)

  • Humma-e- Shamsia (Heatstroke)
  • Predominance of yellow bile (Safra) and Dam (blood)
  • Ajsam-e- Khabisa (Foreign bodies)
  • Sue-e-Mizaj-e- Balgham (Impairment of phlegm)
  • Sue-e- Mizaj-e- Safra (Impairment of yellow bile)
  • Sue-e-Mizaj-e-Sauda (Impairment of black bile)
  • Extreme cold breeze
  • Cold and coryza
  • Some systemic diseases such as diptheria (Khunaq), syphilis (Aatshak) and gonorrhoea (Suzaak)

Principles of treatment (Usool-e- ilaaj)

  • Evacuation (Tanqiya) through Purgation (ishaal)
  • Resolution of swelling (Tahlil-e- waram)
  • Tarteeb-e- dimaagh (Brain moistening) for Ramad Saudawi (Melancholic conjunctivitis)

Pharmacotherapy (Ilaaj bil dawa)

  • Joshanda-e- Halaila in case of Ramad-e- Safrawi (Bilious conjunctivitis)
  • Nutool (Irrigation) of the following decoction on the head
  • Gul-e- Babuna (Matricaria chamomilia, Linn.), Gul-e- surkh (Rosa damascene, Mill.) Marzanjosh (Origanum majorana, Linn.)
  • Administration of following eye drop containing mucilaginous decanted liquid prepared from Tukhm-e- hulba (Trigonella foenum- graecum, Linn.) and Tukhm-e- katan (Linum usitatissimum, Linn.)
  • Local application of paste of sandal (Santalum album, Linn.), Rasaut (Berberis aristata, DC.), Mamisa (Thalictarum foliolosum, DC.) and Aqaaqiya (Extract of pods of Acacia Arabica, Willd.) ground, mixed with fresh coriander juice.

Single Drugs

  • Beekhe Kasni                                                          (Cichorium intybus)
  • Gul-e- Surkh                                                            (Rosa damascena Mill)
  • Turbud/ Nasaut                                                        (Operculina turpethum (Linn.)
  • Shibb-e- yamani/ Phitkari                                        Alum
  • Babool                                                                     (Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd)
  • Suhaga Borax                                                          (Sodium biborate)
  • Flowrs of Mundi (Spaeranhus)                                 (Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.)
  • Unnab Jujuba                                                           (Zizyphus sativa Linn.)
  • Halaila zard ka chhilka (Chebulic myrobalan)          (Terminalia chebula)
  • Zarishk Barbelly                                                       (Berberis aristata DC)
  • Chaksu                                                                     (Cassia absus Linn.)
  • Saanta / Punar Nava                                                (Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.)
  • Green tea                                                                  (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze)
  • Fennel                                                                      (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)
  • Shahhatra                                                                 (Fumaria officinalis Linn.)
  • Abhal                                                                       (Juniperus communis Linn.)
  • Chhuee Muee                                                           (Mimosa pudica Linn.)
  • Jangali Tulsi                                                             (Ocimum gratissimum Linn.)
  • Amrood                                                                     (Psidium guajava Linn.)
  • Aadaranj Dashti                                                       (Xanthium strumarium Linn.)
  • Marzanjosh                                                              (Origanum majorana Linn.)

Compound Drugs

  • Ayaarij faiqra 3-5 gms in Ramad-e- Balghami (Phlegmatic conjunctivitis)
  • Shiyaf-e- Abyaz for local application
  • Shiyaf-e-  Dinarjun for Ramad-e- Saudawi (Melancholic conjunctivitis)
  • Zarur-e- Abyaz for local application

Ilaj bil Tadbeer (Regimenal Therapy)

  • Takmeed (Fomentation)
  • Fasd (Bloodletting)
  • Hammam (Bath) for Ramad Saudawi (Melancholic conjunctivitis)
  • Hijamat (Cupping therapy)
  • Patient to be kept in dark room

Dietary Recommendation

  • Ma’al Sha’ir (Barley water) in recommended in Ramad-e- Saudawi (Melancholic conjunctivitis)
  • Aghziya Latifa

Dietary Restriction

  • Sour diets
  • Sweet diets
  • Spices

Preventive Measures: Patients are Advised to

  • Keep their eyes clean
  • Avoid exposure to dust and smoke, hot temperament and hot air
  • Avoid frequent rubbing/ touching of eyes
  • Apply Kohl (Surma) in the eyes
  • Avoid istifraagh (Evacuation) and Tahallul (Resolution)
  • Avoid scalp massage

Health Promoting Tips for Eyes

  • Patients are advised to wash their eyes frequently
  • They are also advised the use Arq-e-Gulab (Rose water) as eye drops frequently
  • Apply Asl (Honey) in the eyes is also advised in conjunctivitis
  • Muslin cloth dipped and dried in turmeric paste (Chob Zard Mehlool) used for wiping the eyes

Note: Drugs should be taken under the advice of the qualified Unani physician. The patients are required to follow strict Unani regimen for optimum results.

















  • PUBLISHED DATE : Mar 04, 2019
  • CREATED / VALIDATED BY : Dr. Mahtab Alam Khan
  • LAST UPDATED ON : Mar 04, 2019


Write your comments

This question is for preventing automated spam submissions