Chronic Sinusitis (Waram-e-Tajaweef-e- Anf Muzmin)


Chronic Sinusitis (Waram-e-Tajaweef-e- Anf Muzmin) is defined as the chronic inflammation of paranasal sinuses (PNS) most commonly involving maxillary sinus; the next most common sites are the ethmoid, frontal, and sphenoid sinuses.

Rhino-sinusitis is a term commonly used synonymously, which means inflammation of paranasal sinuses (PNS) along with nasal mucosa.

Chronic Sinusitis (Waram-e-Tajaweef-e- Anf Muzmin) is one of the commonest allergic manifestations all around the world which affects all types of population. Among Indians this disease is more widespread than asthma, diabetes or coronary heart disease. One in every eight Indians suffer from chronic sinusitis. In a survey by The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) it has been estimated that 134 million Indians suffer from chronic sinusitis.

As per Unani medicine philosophy it is caused by cold morbid temperament (Su-e- Mizaaj Baarid) of brain as a result of various external factors e.g. exposure to cold air, cold water etc.. It may also occur by collection of putrified matter (Khilt-e- Afin) in and around the olfactory organs. The predisposing factors include cold temperament of an individual, old age and cold season.

It is characterized by heaviness (Tamaddud) of face, forehead and head, nasal discharge, nazala-e- halaqi (post nasal drip), nasal obstruction (sudda-e- anf), nasal voice (Ghunna), Hyposmia/ Anosmia (Nuqsan wa butlan-e- Hiss-e- Shamm), irritation (Daghdagha), diminished taste and cough.

In the treatises of eminent Unani physicians, Iltehaab-e- Tajaweef-e- Anf or Waram-e-Tajaweef-e- Anf (Chronic sinusitis) has not been mentioned as a disease. However signs and symptoms of Nazla-e- Baarid Muzmin have been described in details in their treatises, which closely resemble the symptoms of chronic sinusitis. In addition, when we go through classical Unani literature regarding the present concept of sinusitis, we find that symptoms and signs of sinusitis have been described under the disease “Nazla”.

Causes (Asbaab)

  • Sour phlegm (Tursh wa Hamiz Balgham), population with Phlegmatic temperament (Balghami mizaj) is more prone to develop the disease
  • Environmental conditions like immoderate hot and wet condition, excessive hot and dry, undue cold and dry conditions
  • Coldness like Cold water, Ice, Cold eatables and Hail or exposure to cold and humid environment.
  • Local irritant like pollens, cotton, fur, feathers, dust, grit and soil particles
  • Specific coldness of the brain which aggravates abnormally by some exogenic factors, e.g., toxic substances and use of cold temperament drugs, cold waves, sadness and psychological stress.
  • Nasal bstruction (Sudda-e- anf)
  • Sudden alternate exposure to heat and cold and weakness of body.
  • Infection (T’adiya) by microbes like bacteria, viruses, fungi etc.
  • Su-e- Mizaj-e- Dimagh: There may be four types of Su-e- Mizaj due to congestion of any of the body humours (Akhlaat) i.e. Dam, Balgham, Safra, and Sawda. This condition arises in response to congestion due to evaporation of the affected Khilt (Humour) towards brain. As a result, liquefaction starts from brain, which affects nasal passage and nostrils.

Symptoms and Signs (Asbaab wa A’lamaat)

  • Nasal congestion
  • Nasal obstruction
  • Whitish, thick and viscid nasal discharge
  • Burning, irritation, redness and itching in the nose, eye and throat
  • Sneezing
  • Lacrimation
  • Decreased sense of smell
  • Nasal speech
  • Mild headache
  • Feeling of pressure and fullness in nose and forehead
  • Excessive thirst
  • Fatigue and lethargy condition
  • Nabz (Pulse): Azeem, Saree’ wa Mutawatir
  • Yellowish Urine (Qarura ka zard hona)

Principles of Treatment (Usuool-e- Ilaj)

  • Izala-e- sabab (Elimination of the cause)
  • To warm the head (Taskheen-e- Raas)
  • To make the causative matter suitable for evacuation (Nuzj-e- Mawaad)
  • To remove the obstruction (Tafteeh-e- Sudda)
  • To remove the causative matter (Tanqiya-e- mawaad)
  • To tone up the brain (Tqwiyat-e- Dimaagh)

Pharmacotherapy (Ilaj Bil Dawa)

  • Hot fomentation (Takmid-e- haar) with wheat husk (Sabus) tied in cloth
  • Local application of paste of seeds of Brassica nigra Linn. (Khardal) and Saussurea lappa Clarke. (Qust) on forehead and head.
  • Hot fomentation (Takmid-e- Haar) with common salt and Jau Ras (Pennissetum glaucum R. Br.)
  • Oral administration of decoction of Asl-us- soos (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) 7 gm., Gaozaban (Borago officinalis Linn.) 7 gm., Parsiyaoshan (Adiantum capillus- veneris Linn. and Bedd.) 7 gm., Mako (Solanum nigrum Linn.) 9 gm., Banafsha (Viola odorata Linn.) 9 gm. And Unnab (Zizyphus vulgaris Lamk.) 7 pieces with a compound Unani formulation Khamira Banafsha 48 gm.
  • Steaming (Inkibaab) of head with Turnip and Baboonah 
  • Oral administration of powder of seeds of Nigella sativa Linn. (Shooneez) 1 gm., Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe (Zaranbad) 1 gm., Aril of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Bisbasa) mixed with 24 ml of honey.
  • Oral administration of roasted seed of Linum usitatissimum Linn. (Tukhm-e- Alsi Biryan) mixed with honey and small amount of Piper nigrum Linn. (Filfil daradz)
  • Oral administration of powder of seed of Nepeta ruderalis Ham. (Tukhm-e- badaranjboya) 1.5 gm. And Lavandula steochas Linn. (Ustukhuddus) 2 gm. mixed with 12 ml of honey
  • Instillation with the combination of 3.5 gm of powdered of Lavandula steochas Linn. (Ustukhuddus) and suitable quantity of honey.
  • Oral administration of powder of Boswellia serrata Roxb. (Kundur) mixed with purified honey.
  • Chewing of almond, sugar and pine nuts.
  • Oral administration of Hareera prepared with wheat husk and almond oil.
  • Bakhur (Fumigation) with Shooneez (Seed of Nigella sativa Linn.)
  • Bakhoor (Fumigation) with Qust (Saussurea lappa Clarke.)
  • Inhalation with (Seed of Nigella sativa Linn.)
  • Inhalation with Qust (Saussurea lappa Clarke.)
  • Inhalation of nasal drops prepared with roasted seed of Nigella sativa Linn. (Shooneez biryaan) soaked in vinegar and mixed with olive oil.

Single Drugs

  • Behi Dana                               Cydona oblanga
  • Banafsha                                Violo odorata
  • Unnab                                     Ziziphus jujuba
  • Gaozaban                               Borago officinalis
  • Sapistan                                 Cardolia latifolia
  • Tukhm-e- Khashkhash           Papaver somnifarem seeds
  • Khaksi                                    Sismbrium irio
  • Zafran                                    Crocus sativus
  • Tukhm-e- Khatmi                   Althaea officinalis
  • Neelofar                                 Nymphea lotus

Compound Unani Drugs

  • Tiryaqe Nazla
  • Habbe Shifa
  • Sharbate Unnab
  • Sharbate khashkhash
  • Sharbate Banafsha
  • Laooqe Khashkhash
  • Khameere khashkhash
  • Habb-e- Ayaarij
  • Laooqe Sapistan
  • Sharbate Faryadris
  • Itrifal Muqawwi-e- Dimaagh
  • Sharbat-e- Zoofa
  • Roghan-e- Banafsha
  • Itrifal Ustukhuddoos
  • Sharbat-e- Ustukhuddoos
  • Itrifal Mulayyan
  • Itrifal Zamani
  • Majoon Falasfa
  • Qaoirooti Haar
  • Khameere Gaozaban

Regimenal Therapy (Ilaj Bil Tadbeer)

  • To produce irritation (Daghdagha) in the nostrils is beneficial
  • Takmeed (Fomentation) with warm cloth
  • Inkebaab (Steam inhalation) is advised
  • Fasd (Venesection) is advisable if damavi khilt (sanguine) is involved and it is followed by mushilat (Purgative drugs).
  • Induce sneezing with the help of luke warm shoneez and zeera is very effective
  • Intake of lukewarm water is very useful

Dietary recommendation

  • Aghziya Musakhkhinah
  • Ma-ul- Sha’eer
  • Aghziya Lateefa
  • Ma-ul- Asl

Dietary Restrictions

  • Aghziya Baarida (Cold food) are also restricted
  • Excessive food intake is restricted
  • Oily food is also restricted
  • Heavy food is also restricted

Tahaffuz (Prevention/ Precaution)

  • Avoid exposure to cold season
  • Avoid smoking
  • Avoid sleeping in the day time and intake of cold water

Health Tips

  • Use of warm clothes or apparels to protect scalp and body from cold wave exposure
  • Easily digestible food should be taken
  • Drinking of lukewarm water is useful in Chronic Sinusitis (Waram-e- Tajaweef-e- Anf Muzmin)


  • CBC (Complete blood count)
  • ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate)
  • X-ray PNS (Paranasal Sinuses)

Note: Unani drugs should be taken under the advice of the qualified Unani physician. The patients are required to follow strict Unani regimen for optimum results.


  • PUBLISHED DATE : Jun 03, 2019
  • CREATED / VALIDATED BY : Dr. Mahtab Alam Khan
  • LAST UPDATED ON : Jun 03, 2019


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